Installing Arch Linux with GNOME

The following is an adaptation of the installation guide provided by Arch. I've skipped the initial key mapping step since this installation is geared toward users within the United States. Boot up your live usb or virtual box machine with the arch iso and proceed with the following..

Verify the boot mode -------------
    ls /sys/firmware/efi/efivars
If the command shows the directory without error, then the system is booted in UEFI mode. If the directory does not exist, the system may be booted in BIOS (or CSM) mode. If the system did not boot in the mode you desired, refer to your motherboard's manual.


Connect to the internet ----------
To set up a network connection in the live environment, go through the following steps: 
    ip link
If any of the displayed network interfaces are in UP state, you are connected
Further, verify internet connectivity by pinging
    ping archlinux.org
If bytes are returned, you are connected to the internet.

Update the system clock ----------
    timedatectl set-ntp true
    timedatectl status

Partition the disks ------------

When recognized by the live system, disks are assigned to a block device such as /dev/sda, /dev/nvme0n1 or /dev/mmcblk0. To identify these devices, use lsblk or fdisk. 
    fdisk -l
Select your physical disk. Most of the time, this will be /dev/sda, but you will need to make that determination on your on with the results from the list.
    fdisk /dev/sda
type m for a list of commands
    type g to create a gpt partition table
Add a new partition
    n
Select the new partition
    1
Press enter to accept the default first sector of 2048
Assign 500 megabytes to this partition
    +550M
Add a new partition
    n
Select the new partition
    2
Press enter to accept the default first sector of 1128448
Assign 2 gigabytes to this partition
    +2G
Add a new partition
    n
Select the new partition
    3
Press enter to accept the default first sector of 5322752
Press enter to assign the remaining space on the drive to this partition
Change the type of a partition
    t
select partition 1
    1
Enter selection 1, EFI system
    1
Change the type of a partition
    t
select partition 2
    1
Enter selection 19, Linux swap
    19
Partition 3 is already set to Linux File System so no changes are needed.
Write the partitions to the drive
    w

Create file systems -----------------
    mkfs.fat -F32 /dev/sda1
    mkswap /dev/sda2
    swapon /dev/sda2
    mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3

Mount the Linux file system
    mount /dev/sda3 /mnt

Install Arch base system, Linux, and Linux firmware
    pacstrap /mnt base linux linux-firmware

Generate file system table
    genfstab -U /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab

Change the console over from the live media to the file system on the disk
    arch-chroot /mnt

Set the system time zone. Use ls /usr/share/zoneinfo/ to list available options. Use the following for EST..
    ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/AMERICA/NEW_YORK /etc/localtime

Set the hardware clock
    hwclock --systohc

Edit the locale
We will install nano for our text editor
Install nano
    pacman -S nano
Edit the locale.gen file
    nano /etc/locale.gen
Scroll down to # en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
Uncomment this line by removing the # and space at the beginning.
Press CTRL + X to exit, y to save, and press ENTER to confirm the filename as is.

Generate the locale
    locale-gen

Set the system hostname
    nano /etc/hostname
    Type the name of your system in the file
Press CTRL + X to exit, y to save, and press ENTER to confirm the filename as is.

Create a hosts file
    nano /etc/hosts
Enter the following into the file, use TAB for spacing

  127.0.0.1   localhost    
  ::1   localhost    
  127.0.1.1   YOURHOSTNAMEHERE.localdomain   YOURHOSTNAMEHERE


Press CTRL + X to exit, y to save, and ENTER to confirm the filename as is.

Set the root password
    passwd
Enter your desired root password
Enter it again to confirm

Add a user with a password. We will grant administrative permissions after this step.
    useradd -m YOURUSERNAME
    passwd YOURUSERNAME
Enter your desired user password
Enter it again to confirm

Apply permissions to this user account
    usermod -aG wheel,audio,video,optical,storage YOURUSERNAME

Install Sudo
    pacman -S sudo

Set editor for sudo configuration to nano
    EDITOR=nano visudo

Uncomment line # %wheel ALL=(ALL) ALL
Press CTRL + X to exit, y to save, and ENTER to confirm the filename as is.


Install Grub
    pacman -S grub

Install efibootmgr, dosfstools, os-prober, and mtools
    pacman -S efibootmgr dosfstools os-prober mtools
    mkdir /boot/EFI
    mount /dev/sda1 /boot/EFI
    grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --bootloader-id=grub_uefi --recheck
    grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg

Install and enable the network
    pacman -S NetworkManager
    systemctl enable NetworkManager

Install git
    pacman -S git

Exit, unmount and reboot
    exit
    unmount -l /mnt
    shutdown now

GNOME Setup
Install xorg
    sudo pacman -S xorg
Were going to install Gnome for this GUI
Install gnome
    sudo pacman -S gnome
Enable the login manager
    systemctl enable gdm
    shutdown now

Important: Once logged in through GNOME, in the app menu, go to Settings > Region & Language.
If the language is set to "Unspecified", change it to English and save. GNOME Terminal will not load if this isn't changed.

Information Technology

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